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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission file number: 001-37351
National Storage Affiliates Trust
(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)  
Maryland46-5053858
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

8400 East Prentice Avenue, 9th Floor
Greenwood Village, Colorado 80111
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip code)

(720) 630-2600
(Registrant's telephone number including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading symbolsName of each exchange on which registered
Common Shares of Beneficial Interest, $0.01 par value per shareNSA
New York Stock Exchange
Series A Cumulative Redeemable Preferred Shares of Beneficial Interest, par value $0.01 per shareNSA Pr A
New York Stock Exchange

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes   No 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer" and "smaller reporting company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer
Accelerated Filer
Non-accelerated Filer
Smaller Reporting Company
Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common shares of beneficial interest of National Storage Affiliates Trust held by non-affiliates of National Storage Affiliates Trust was approximately $1.7 billion as of June 30, 2019. As of February 25, 2020, 59,683,668 common shares of beneficial interest, $0.01 par value per share, were outstanding.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Portions of the registrant's definitive proxy statement for its annual meeting of shareholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.




NATIONAL STORAGE AFFILIATES TRUST
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the Fiscal Year Ended December 31, 2019
ItemPage
PART I
1.
Business
1A.
Risk Factors
1B.
Unresolved Staff Comments
2.
Properties
3.
Legal Proceedings
4.
Mine Safety Disclosures
PART II
5.
Market for the Registrant's Common Equity, Related Shareholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
6.
Selected Financial Data
7.
Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
7A.
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
8.
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
9.
Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
9A.
Controls and Procedures
9B.
Other Information
PART III
10.
Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance
11.
Executive Compensation
12.
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
13.
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
14.
Principal Accounting Fees and Services
PART IV
15.
Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
16.
Form 10-K Summary


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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
National Storage Affiliates Trust and its consolidated subsidiaries (the "Company", "NSA," "we," "our", and "us") make forward-looking statements in this report that are subject to risks and uncertainties. These forward-looking statements include information about possible or assumed future results of our business, financial condition, liquidity, results of operations, plans and objectives. When we use the words "believe," "expect," "anticipate," "estimate," "plan," "continue," "intend," "should," "may," or similar expressions, we intend to identify forward-looking statements.
The forward-looking statements contained in this report reflect our current views about future events and are subject to numerous known and unknown risks, uncertainties, assumptions, and changes in circumstances that may cause our actual results to differ significantly from those expressed in any forward-looking statement.
Statements regarding the following subjects, among others, may be forward-looking:
market trends in our industry, interest rates, the debt and lending markets or the general economy;
our business and investment strategy;
the acquisition of properties, including those under contract, and the ability of our acquisitions to achieve underwritten capitalization rates and our ability to execute on our acquisition pipeline;
the internalization of existing participating regional operators ("PROs") into the Company;
the timing of acquisitions;
our relationships with, and our ability and timing to attract additional, PROs;
our ability to effectively align the interests of our PROs with us and our shareholders;
the integration of our PROs and their managed portfolios into the Company, including into our financial and operational reporting infrastructure and internal control framework;
our operating performance and projected operating results, including our ability to achieve market rents and occupancy levels, reduce operating expenditures and increase the sale of ancillary products and services;
our ability to access additional off-market acquisitions;
actions and initiatives of the U.S. federal, state and local government and changes to U.S. federal, state and local government policies and the execution and impact of these actions, initiatives and policies;
the state of the U.S. economy generally or in specific geographic regions, states, territories or municipalities;
economic trends and economic recoveries;
our ability to obtain and maintain financing arrangements on favorable terms;
general volatility of the securities markets in which we participate;
changes in the value of our assets;
projected capital expenditures;
the impact of technology on our products, operations, and business;
the implementation of our technology and best practices programs (including our ability to effectively implement our integrated Internet marketing strategy);
changes in interest rates and the degree to which our hedging strategies may or may not protect us from interest rate volatility;
impact of and changes in governmental regulations, tax law and rates, accounting guidance and similar matters;
our ability to continue to qualify and maintain our qualification as a real estate investment trust for U.S. federal income tax purposes ("REIT");

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availability of qualified personnel;
the timing of conversions of each series of Class B common units of limited partner interest ("subordinated performance units") in NSA OP, LP (our "operating partnership") and subsidiaries of our operating partnership into Class A common units of limited partner interest ("OP units") in our operating partnership, the conversion ratio in effect at such time and the impact of such convertibility on our diluted earnings (loss) per share;
the risks of investing through joint ventures, including whether the anticipated benefits from a joint venture are realized or may take longer to realize than expected;
estimates relating to our ability to make distributions to our shareholders in the future; and
our understanding of our competition.
The forward-looking statements are based on our beliefs, assumptions and expectations of our future performance, taking into account all information currently available to us. Forward-looking statements are not predictions of future events. These beliefs, assumptions, and expectations can change as a result of many possible events or factors, not all of which are known to us. Readers should carefully review our financial statements and the notes thereto, as well as the sections entitled "Business," "Risk Factors," "Properties," and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," described in Item 1, Item 1A, Item 2 and Item 7, respectively, of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the other documents we file from time to time with the Securities and Exchange Commission. If a change occurs, our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations may vary materially from those expressed in our forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made. New risks and uncertainties arise over time, and it is not possible for us to predict those events or how they may affect us. Except as required by law, we are not obligated to, and do not intend to, update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
PART I
Item 1. Business
General
National Storage Affiliates Trust is a fully integrated, self-administered and self-managed real estate investment trust organized in the state of Maryland on May 16, 2013. We have elected and we believe that we have qualified to be taxed as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2015. We serve as the sole general partner of our operating partnership subsidiary, NSA OP, LP (our "operating partnership"), a Delaware limited partnership formed on February 13, 2013 to conduct our business, which is focused on the ownership, operation, and acquisition of self storage properties located within the top 100 metropolitan statistical areas ("MSAs") throughout the United States. As of December 31, 2019, we held ownership interests in and operated a geographically diversified portfolio of 742 self storage properties, located in 35 states and Puerto Rico, comprising approximately 47.1 million rentable square feet, configured in approximately 378,000 storage units. According to the 2020 Self-Storage Almanac, we are the sixth largest owner and operator of self storage properties in the United States based on number of properties, self storage units, and rentable square footage. We completed our initial public offering in 2015 and our common shares of beneficial interest, $0.01 par value per share ("common shares") are listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "NSA."
Our executive chairman of the board of trustees and former chief executive officer, Arlen D. Nordhagen, co-founded SecurCare Self Storage, Inc. in 1988 to invest in and manage self storage properties. While growing SecurCare to over 150 self storage properties, Mr. Nordhagen recognized a market opportunity for a differentiated public self storage REIT that would leverage the benefits of national scale by integrating multiple experienced regional self storage operators with local operational focus and expertise. We believe that his vision, which is the foundation of the Company, aligns the interests of our participating regional operators ("PROs"), with those of our public shareholders by allowing our PROs to participate alongside our shareholders in our financial performance and the performance of our PROs' "managed portfolios", which means, with respect to each PRO, the portfolio of properties that such PRO manages on our behalf. A key component of this strategy is to capitalize on the local market expertise and knowledge of regional self storage operators by maintaining the continuity of their roles as property managers.

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We believe that our structure creates the right financial incentives to accomplish these objectives. We require our PROs to exchange the self storage properties they contribute to the Company for a combination of OP units and subordinated performance units in our operating partnership or subsidiaries of our operating partnership that issue units intended to be economically equivalent to the OP units and subordinated performance units issued by our operating partnership ("DownREIT partnerships"). OP units, which are economically equivalent to our common shares, create alignment with the performance of the Company as a whole. Subordinated performance units, which are linked to the performance of specific managed portfolios, incentivize our PROs to drive operating performance and support the sustainability of the operating cash flow generated by the self storage properties that they manage on our behalf. Because subordinated performance unit holders receive distributions only after portfolio-specific minimum performance thresholds are satisfied, subordinated performance units play a key role in aligning the interests of our PROs with us and our shareholders. Our structure thus offers PROs a unique opportunity to serve as regional property managers for their managed portfolios and directly participate in the potential upside of those properties while simultaneously diversifying their investment to include a broader portfolio of self storage properties. We believe our structure provides us with a competitive growth advantage over self storage companies that do not offer property owners the ability to participate in the performance and potential future growth of their managed portfolios.
We believe that our national platform has significant potential for continued external and internal growth. We seek to further expand our platform by continuing to recruit additional established self storage operators as well as opportunistically partnering with institutional funds and other institutional investors in strategic joint venture arrangements while integrating our operations through the implementation of centralized initiatives, including management information systems, revenue enhancement, and cost optimization programs. We are currently engaged in preliminary discussions with additional self storage operators and believe that we could add one to three more PROs in addition to the PROs we have currently, which will enhance our existing geographic footprint and allow us to enter regional markets in which we currently have limited or no market share. We are also currently under contract to internalize an existing PRO, subject to the satisfaction of customary closing conditions. See "SecurCare Internalization" below.
Our PROs
The Company had ten PROs as of December 31, 2019: SecurCare Self Storage, Inc. and its controlled affiliates ("SecurCare"), Kevin Howard Real Estate Inc., d/b/a Northwest Self Storage and its controlled affiliates ("Northwest"), Optivest Properties LLC and its controlled affiliates ("Optivest"), Guardian Storage Centers LLC and its controlled affiliates ("Guardian"), Move It Self Storage and its controlled affiliates ("Move It"), Arizona Mini Storage Management Company d/b/a Storage Solutions and its controlled affiliates ("Storage Solutions"), Hide-Away Storage Services, Inc. and its controlled affiliates ("Hide-Away"), an affiliate of Shader Brothers Corporation d/b/a Personal Mini Storage ("Personal Mini"), Southern Storage Management Systems, Inc. d/b/a Southern Self Storage ("Southern") and affiliates of Investment Real Estate Management, LLC d/b/a Moove In Self Storage ("Moove In").
To capitalize on their recognized and established local brands, our PROs continue to function as property managers for their managed portfolios under their existing brands (which include various brands in addition to those discussed below). Over the long-run, we may seek to brand or co-brand each location as part of NSA.
SecurCare, which is headquartered in Lone Tree, Colorado, has been operating since 1988 and is one of our PROs responsible for covering the west, mountain, midwest and southeast regions. SecurCare provided property management services to 215 of our properties located in California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina and Texas as of December 31, 2019. SecurCare is currently managed by David Cramer, who has worked in the self storage industry for more than 20 years.
Northwest, which is headquartered in Portland, Oregon, is our PRO responsible for covering the northwest region. Northwest provided property management services to 78 of our properties located in Idaho, Oregon and Washington as of December 31, 2019. Northwest is led by Kevin Howard, a former member of our board of trustees, who founded Northwest over 30 years ago and is recognized in the industry for his successful track record as a self storage specialist in the areas of design and development, operations and property management, consultation, and brokerage.

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Optivest, which is based in Dana Point, California, is one of our PROs responsible for covering portions of the northeast and southwest regions. Optivest managed 64 of our properties located in Arizona, California, Massachusetts, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico and Texas as of December 31, 2019. Optivest is run by its co-founder, Warren Allan, who has more than 25 years of financial and operational management experience in the self storage industry and is recognized as a self storage acquisition and development specialist.
Guardian, which is based in Irvine, California, is one of our PROs responsible for covering portions of the southern California and southwest regions. Guardian managed 55 of our properties located in California, Arizona and Nevada as of December 31, 2019. Guardian is led by John Minar, who has nearly 40 years of self storage acquisition, rehabilitation, ownership, operations and development experience.
Move It, which is based in Dallas, Texas, is one of our PROs responsible for covering portions of the Texas and southeast markets. Move It managed 33 of our properties located in Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas as of December 31, 2019. Move It is led by its founder, Tracy Taylor, who has more than 40 years of experience in self storage development, acquisition and management, and is currently on the board of directors for the Large Owners Council of the Self Storage Association and is a former Chairman of the Self Storage Association.
Storage Solutions, which is based in Chandler, Arizona, is our PRO responsible for covering portions of the Arizona and Nevada markets. Storage Solutions managed 10 of our properties in Arizona and Nevada as of December 31, 2019. Storage Solutions is led by its founder, Bill Bohannan, who is one of the largest operators in Phoenix and has more than 35 years of self storage acquisition, development and management experience. Mr. Bohannan is recognized in the industry as a self storage acquisition, development and management specialist.
Hide-Away, which is based in Sarasota, Florida, is our PRO responsible for covering the western Florida market. Hide-Away managed 22 of our properties in western Florida as of December 31, 2019. Hide-Away is led by its founder, Steve Wilson, one of the early developers of the self storage business, who served for more than 35 years as the President of Hide-Away and its related entities, and is a former Chairman of the Self Storage Association.
Personal Mini, which is based in Orlando, Florida, is our PRO responsible for covering portions of the central Florida market. Personal Mini managed eight of our properties in central Florida as of December 31, 2019. Personal Mini is led by Marc Smith, a self storage investor who has been involved in all facets of the self storage business. Mr. Smith is a past Chairman of the Self Storage Association, and also previously served as president of the Southeast Region of the Self Storage Association.
Southern, which is based in Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, is one of our PROs responsible for covering portions of Arizona and the southeast region, including New Orleans, the Florida Panhandle, southern Georgia, and Puerto Rico. Southern managed 29 of our properties in Arizona, Louisiana, the Florida Panhandle, southern Georgia, and Puerto Rico as of December 31, 2019. Southern is led by Bob McIntosh and Peter Cowie, who are active real estate operators with more than 30 years of self storage experience.
Moove In, which is based in York, Pennsylvania, is our PRO responsible for covering portions of the northeast region, including portions of Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and New Jersey. Moove In managed 11 of our properties in Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and New Jersey as of December 31, 2019. Moove In is led by John Gilliland, a past Chairman of the Self Storage Association.
We benefit from the local market knowledge and active presence of our PROs, allowing us to build and foster important customer and industry relationships. These local relationships provide attractive off-market acquisition opportunities that we believe will continue to fuel additional external growth.
We believe our structure allows our PROs to optimize their established property management platforms while addressing financial and operational hurdles. Before joining us, our PROs faced challenges in securing low cost capital and had to manage multiple investors and lending relationships, making it difficult to compete with larger competitors, including public REITs, for acquisition and investment opportunities. Our PROs were also limited in their ability to raise growth capital through the sale of assets, a portfolio refinancing, or capital contributions from new equity partners. Serving as our on-the-ground acquisition teams, our PROs now have access to our broader

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financing sources and lower cost of capital, while our national platform allows them to benefit from economies of scale to drive operating efficiencies in a rapidly evolving, technology-driven industry.
SecurCare Internalization
On February 24, 2020, we entered into a definitive agreement with SecurCare to merge SecurCare into a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company. As a result of the merger, SecurCare's property management platform and related intellectual property will be internalized by us. As part of the internalization, most of SecurCare's employees, including its president and chief executive officer, David Cramer, and its other key persons, will be offered employment by us and will continue managing SecurCare's portfolio of properties under the brand SecurCare as members of our existing property management platform. Mr. Cramer will replace Steven B. Treadwell as our chief operating officer and executive vice president effective at or around the closing of the merger. As a result of the merger, we will no longer pay any fees or reimbursements to SecurCare and distributions on the series of subordinated performance units related to SecurCare's managed portfolio will be discontinued. The transactions are expected to close during the second quarter of 2020, subject to customary closing conditions. However, there is no assurance that the transactions will be consummated at all or at the time or pursuant to the terms currently contemplated. For additional information, see the current report on Form 8-K that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 24, 2020.
Our Consolidated Properties
We seek to own properties that are well located in high quality sub-markets with highly accessible street access and attractive supply and demand characteristics, providing our properties with strong and stable cash flows that are less sensitive to the fluctuations of the general economy. Many of these markets have multiple barriers to entry against increased supply, including zoning restrictions against new construction and new construction costs that we believe are higher than our properties' fair market value. As of December 31, 2019, we owned a geographically diversified portfolio of 567 self storage properties, located in 29 states and Puerto Rico, comprising approximately 34.5 million rentable square feet, configured in approximately 275,000 storage units. Of these properties, 265 were acquired by us from our PROs, 301 were acquired by us from third-party sellers and one was acquired by us from the 2016 Joint Venture (as defined in Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8). A complete listing of, and additional information about, our self storage properties is included in Item 2 of this report. 
During the year ended December 31, 2019, we acquired 69 consolidated self storage properties, of which 19 were acquired by us from our PROs, 49 were acquired by us from third-party sellers and one was acquired by us from the 2016 Joint Venture. The following is a summary of our 2019 consolidated acquisition activity (dollars in thousands):
Number of Number ofRentable
StatePropertiesUnitsSquare FeetFair Value
2019 Acquisitions:
Florida12  5,400  653,564  $90,580  
Louisiana12  6,052  682,729  69,330  
Texas11  5,292  801,344  79,688  
Georgia10  5,113  658,636  70,134  
Pennsylvania 2,665  299,125  33,162  
Idaho 925  202,545  12,450  
New Jersey 1,436  191,304  18,182  
New Mexico 1,950  233,868  28,221  
Arizona 801  97,320  11,475  
Massachusetts 1,454  124,200  12,312  
Missouri 861  103,726  9,066  
Other(1)
 1,011  128,937  13,230  
Total69  32,960  4,177,298  $447,830  

(1) Self storage properties in other states acquired during the year ended December 31, 2019 include Maryland, New Hampshire and Oregon.

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During the year ended December 31, 2019, we sold one self storage property to an unrelated third party for $6.5 million. The self storage property comprised less than 0.1 million rentable square feet configured in approximately 500 storage units.
During the year ended December 31, 2018, we acquired 57 consolidated self storage properties and an expansion project adjacent to an existing property, of which four were acquired by us from our PROs and 53 were acquired by us from third-party sellers. The following is a summary of our 2018 consolidated acquisition activity (dollars in thousands):
Number of Number ofRentable
State/TerritoryPropertiesUnitsSquare FeetFair Value
2018 Acquisitions:
Arizona13  6,943  758,623  $74,168  
Kansas13  4,443  548,415  59,876  
Florida 2,893  322,111  32,483  
Missouri 2,000  235,300  28,175  
North Carolina 2,296  285,975  39,596  
California 895  102,207  15,741  
Nevada 837  108,065  11,172  
Oregon 486  63,805  8,137  
Texas 956  125,087  9,549  
Other(1)
10  6,411  662,175  77,752  
Total57  28,160  3,211,763  356,649  

(1) Self storage properties in other states and territories acquired during the year ended December 31, 2018 include Georgia, Maryland, Ohio, Washington, and Puerto Rico.
During the year ended December 31, 2018, we sold two self storage properties to unrelated third parties for $5.5 million. The self storage properties comprised approximately 0.1 million rentable square feet configured in approximately 1,500 storage units.
Our Unconsolidated Real Estate Ventures
We seek to opportunistically partner with institutional funds and other institutional investors to acquire attractive portfolios utilizing a promoted return structure. We believe there is significant opportunity for continued external growth by partnering with institutional investors seeking to deploy capital in the self storage industry.
2018 Joint Venture
As of December 31, 2019, our 2018 Joint Venture (as defined in Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8), in which we have a 25% ownership interest, owned and operated 103 self storage properties containing approximately 7.7 million rentable square feet, configured in over 63,000 storage units and located across 17 states.
2016 Joint Venture
As of December 31, 2019, our 2016 Joint Venture, in which we have a 25% ownership interest, owned and operated a portfolio of 72 properties containing approximately 4.9 million rentable square feet, configured in approximately 40,000 storage units and located across 13 states. During the year ended December 31, 2019, our 2016 Joint Venture sold to the Company one self storage property for $4.1 million, comprising less than 0.1 million rentable square feet, configured in approximately 300 storage units.
Our Property Management Platform
Through our property management platform, branded iStorage, we direct, manage and control the day-to-day operations and affairs of certain consolidated properties and our unconsolidated real estate ventures. We earn certain customary fees for managing and operating the properties in the unconsolidated real estate ventures and we facilitate tenant insurance and/or tenant warranty protection programs for tenants at these properties in exchange for half of all proceeds from such programs. Over time, as PROs retire, we may we transfer management of all or part of an existing PRO's managed portfolio to our or another PRO's property management platform.

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As of December 31, 2019, our property management platform managed and controlled 42 of our consolidated properties in select markets in California, Illinois, Kansas, Maryland, Missouri, Ohio, Texas and Virginia.
Our Competitive Strengths
We believe our unique PRO structure combined with our property management platform allows us to differentiate ourselves from other self storage operators, and the following competitive strengths enable us to effectively compete against our industry peers:
High Quality Properties in Key Growth Markets.    We held ownership interests in and operated a geographically diversified portfolio of 742 self storage properties, located in 35 states and Puerto Rico, comprising approximately 47.1 million rentable square feet, configured in approximately 378,000 storage units as of December 31, 2019. Over 75% of our consolidated portfolio is located in the top 100 MSAs, based on our 2019 net operating income ("NOI"). We believe that these properties are primarily located in high quality growth markets that have attractive supply and demand characteristics and are less sensitive to the fluctuations of the general economy. Many of these markets have multiple barriers to entry against increased supply, including zoning restrictions against new construction and new construction costs that we believe are higher than our properties' fair market value. Furthermore, we believe that our significant size and the overall geographic diversification of our portfolio reduces risks associated with specific local or regional economic downturns or natural disasters.
Differentiated, Growth-Oriented Strategy Focused on Established Operators.    We are a self storage REIT with a unique structure that supports our differentiated external growth strategy. Our PRO structure appeals to operators who are looking for access to growth capital while maintaining an economic stake in the self storage properties that each manages on the Company's behalf. These attributes entice operators to join the Company rather than sell their properties for cash consideration. Through our PRO structure, we seek to attract operators who are confident in the future performance of their properties and desire to participate in the growth of the Company. We have successfully recruited established operators across the United States with a history of efficient property management and a track record of successful acquisitions. Our structure and differentiated strategy have enabled us to build a substantial captive pipeline from existing operators as well as potentially create external growth from the recruitment of additional PROs.
Integrated Platform Utilizing Advanced Technology for Enhanced Operational Performance and Best Practices.    Our national platform allows us to capture cost savings through integration and centralization, thereby eliminating redundancies and utilizing economies of scale across the property management platforms of us and our PROs. As compared to a stand-alone operator, our national platform has greater access to lower-cost capital, reduced Internet marketing costs per customer lead, discounted property insurance expense, and reduced overhead costs. In addition, the Company has sufficient scale for various centralized functions, including financial reporting, the operation of call centers, expanding cell tower leasing, a national credit card processing program, marketing, information technology, legal support, and capital market functions, to achieve substantial cost savings over smaller, individual operators.
Our national platform utilizes advanced technology for our data warehouse program, Internet marketing, our centralized call centers, financial and property analytic dashboards, revenue optimization analytics and expense management tools to enhance operational performance. These centralized programs, which are run through our Technology and Best Practices Group, are positively impacting our business performance, and we believe that they will continue to be a driver of organic growth going forward. We will continue to utilize our Technology and Best Practices Group to help us benefit from the collective sharing of key operating strategies among our PROs in areas like human resource management, local marketing and operating procedures and building tenant insurance-related arrangements.
Aligned Incentive Structure with Shareholder Downside Protection.    Our structure promotes operator accountability as subordinated performance units issued to our PROs in exchange for the contribution of their properties are entitled to distributions only after those properties satisfy minimum performance thresholds. In the event of a material reduction in operating cash flow, distributions on our subordinated performance units will be reduced before or disproportionately to distributions on our common shares held by our common shareholders. In addition, we expect our PROs will generally co-invest subordinated equity in the form of subordinated performance units in each acquisition that they source from a third-party seller, and the value of these subordinated performance units will fluctuate with the performance of their managed portfolios. Therefore, our PROs are incentivized to select acquisitions that are expected to exceed minimum performance thresholds, thereby increasing the value of their

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subordinated equity stake. We expect that our shareholders will benefit from the higher levels of property performance that our PROs are incentivized to deliver.
Our Business and Growth Strategies
By capitalizing on our competitive strengths, we seek to increase scale, achieve optimal revenue-producing occupancy and rent levels, and increase long-term shareholder value by achieving sustainable long-term growth. Our business and growth strategies to achieve these objectives are as follows:
Maximize Property Level Cash Flow.    We strive to maximize the cash flows at our properties by leveraging the economies of scale provided by our national platform, including through the implementation of new ideas derived from our Technology and Best Practices Group. We believe that our unique PRO structure, centralized infrastructure and efficient national platform will enable us to achieve optimal market rents and occupancy, reduce operating expenses and increase the sale by our PROs of ancillary products and services, including tenant insurance, of which we receive a portion of the proceeds, truck rentals and packing supplies.
Acquire Built-in Captive Pipeline of Target Properties from Existing PROs.    We have an attractive, high quality potential acquisition pipeline (our "captive pipeline") of approximately 140 self storage properties valued at approximately $1.4 billion that will continue to drive our future growth. We consider a property to be in our captive pipeline if it (i) is under a management service agreement with one of our PROs, (ii) meets our property quality criteria, and (iii) is either required to be offered to us under the applicable facilities portfolio management agreement or a PRO has a reasonable basis to believe that the controlling owner of the property intends to sell the property in the next seven years.
Our PROs have management service agreements with all of the properties in our captive pipeline and hold controlling and non-controlling ownership interests in some of these properties. With respect to each property in our captive pipeline in which a PRO holds a controlling ownership interest, such PRO has agreed that it will not transfer (or permit the transfer of, to the extent possible) any interest in such self storage property without first offering or causing to be offered (if permissible) such interest to us. In addition, upon maturity of the outstanding mortgage indebtedness encumbering such property, so long as occupancy is consistent with or exceeds average local market levels, which we determine in our sole discretion, such PRO has agreed to offer or cause to be offered (if permissible) such interest to us. With respect to captive pipeline properties in which our PROs have a non-controlling ownership interest or no ownership interest, each PRO has agreed to use commercially reasonable good faith efforts to facilitate our purchase of such property. We preserve the discretion to accept or reject any of the properties that our PROs are required to, or elect to, offer (or cause to be offered) to us.
Access Additional Off-Market Acquisition Opportunities.    Our PROs and their "on-the-ground" personnel have established an extensive network of industry relationships and contacts in their respective markets. Through these local connections, our PROs are able to access acquisition opportunities that are not publicly marketed or sold through auctions. Our structure incentivizes our PROs to source acquisitions in their markets from third-party sellers and consolidate these properties into the Company. Other public self storage companies generally have acquisition teams located at their central offices, which in many instances are far removed from regional and local markets. We believe our operators' networks and close familiarity with the other operators in their markets provide us clear competitive advantages in identifying and selecting attractive acquisition opportunities. Our PROs have sourced 265 acquisitions from third-party sellers comprising approximately 18.0 million rentable square feet as of December 31, 2019.
Recruit Additional New PROs in Target Markets.    We intend to continue to execute on our external growth strategy through additional acquisitions and contributions from future PROs in key markets. We believe there is significant opportunity for growth through consolidation of the highly fragmented composition of the market. We believe that future operators will be attracted to our unique structure, providing them with lower cost of capital, better economies of scale, and greater operational and overhead efficiencies while preserving their existing property management platforms. We intend to add one to three additional PROs to complement our existing geographic footprint and to achieve our goal of creating a highly diversified nationwide portfolio of properties focused in the top 100 MSAs. When considering a PRO candidate, we consider various factors, including the size of the potential PRO's portfolio, the quality and location of its properties, its market exposure, its operating expertise, its ability to grow its business, and its reputation with industry participants.
Strategic Joint Venture Arrangements.    We intend to continue to opportunistically partner with institutional funds and other institutional investors to acquire attractive portfolios utilizing a promoted return structure. We

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believe there is significant opportunity for continued external growth by partnering with institutional investors seeking to deploy capital in the self storage industry. We intend to leverage our property management platform to provide property and asset management services for future strategic joint ventures, generating additional operating profits and third party fee income.
Our Financing Strategy
We expect to maintain a flexible approach in financing new property acquisitions. In general, we expect to fund our property acquisitions through a combination of borrowings under bank credit facilities (including term loans and revolving facilities), property-level debt, issuances of OP equity and public and private equity and debt issuances.
As of December 31, 2019, our unsecured credit facility provided for total borrowings of $1.275 billion (the "credit facility"). The credit facility consists of the following components: (i) a revolving line of credit (the "Revolver") which provides for a total borrowing commitment up to $500.0 million, under which we may borrow, repay and re-borrow amounts, (ii) a $125.0 million tranche A term loan facility (the "Term Loan A"), (iii) a $250.0 million tranche B term loan facility (the "Term Loan B"), (iv) a $225.0 million tranche C term loan facility (the "Term Loan C"), and (v) a $175.0 million tranche D term loan facility (the "Term Loan D"). As of December 31, 2019, we had the entire amounts drawn on Term Loan A, Term Loan B, Term Loan C and Term Loan D and we had no outstanding borrowings under the Revolver, and the capacity to borrow an additional $494.3 million under the Revolver while remaining in compliance with the credit facility's financial covenants. As of December 31, 2019, we have an expansion option under the credit facility, which, if exercised in full, would provide for a total credit facility of $1.750 billion.
We have a credit agreement with a syndicated group of lenders for a term loan facility that matures in June 2023 (the "2023 Term Loan Facility") and is separate from the credit facility in an aggregate amount of $175.0 million. As of December 31, 2019 the entire amount was outstanding under the 2023 Term Loan Facility with an effective interest rate of 2.83%. We have an expansion option under the 2023 Term Loan Facility, which, if exercised in full, would provide for total borrowings in an aggregate amount of $400.0 million.
We have a credit agreement with a lender for a term loan facility that matures in December 2028 (the "2028 Term Loan Facility") and is separate from the credit facility and 2023 Term Loan Facility in an aggregate amount of $75.0 million. As of December 31, 2019 the entire amount was outstanding under the 2028 Term Loan Facility with an effective interest rate of 4.62%. We have an expansion option under the 2028 Term Loan Facility, which, if exercised in full, would provide for total borrowings in an aggregate amount up to $125.0 million.
On April 24, 2019, we entered into a credit agreement with a lender for a term loan facility that matures in April 2029 (the "2029 Term Loan Facility") and is separate from the credit facility, 2023 Term Loan Facility and 2028 Term Loan Facility in an aggregate amount of $100.0 million. As of December 31, 2019 the entire amount was outstanding under the 2029 Term Loan Facility with an effective interest rate of 4.27%.
The credit facility, 2023 Term Loan Facility, 2028 Term Loan Facility and 2029 Term Loan Facility each contain the same financial covenants and customary affirmative and negative covenants that, among other things, could limit the Company's ability to make distributions or certain investments, incur debt, incur liens and enter into certain transactions.
On August 30, 2019, our operating partnership issued $100.0 million of 3.98% senior unsecured notes due August 30, 2029 (the "2029 Senior Unsecured Notes") and $50.0 million of 4.08% senior unsecured notes due August 30, 2031 (the "2031 Senior Unsecured Notes" and together with the 2029 Senior Unsecured Notes, the "Senior Unsecured Notes") in a private placement to certain institutional accredited investors. The Senior Unsecured Notes are subject to customary affirmative and negative covenants that, among other things, limit the Company's ability to make distributions or certain investments, incur debt, incur liens and enter into certain transactions.
We expect to employ leverage in our capital structure in amounts determined from time to time by our board of trustees. Although our board of trustees has not adopted a policy which limits the total amount of indebtedness that we may incur, it will consider a number of factors in evaluating our level of indebtedness from time to time, as well as the amount of such indebtedness that will be either fixed and variable-rate, and in making financial decisions, including, among others, the following:
the interest rate of the proposed financing;
the extent to which the financing impacts our flexibility in managing our properties;

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prepayment penalties and restrictions on refinancing;
the purchase price of properties we acquire with debt financing;
our long-term objectives with respect to the financing;
our target investment returns;
the ability of particular properties, and the Company as a whole, to generate cash flow sufficient to cover expected debt service payments;
overall level of consolidated indebtedness;
timing of debt maturities;
provisions that require recourse and cross-collateralization;
corporate credit ratios including debt service coverage, debt to total market capitalization and debt to undepreciated assets; and
the overall ratio of fixed- and variable-rate debt.
Our indebtedness may be recourse, non-recourse or cross-collateralized. If the indebtedness is non-recourse, the collateral will be limited to the particular properties to which the indebtedness relates. In addition, we may invest in properties subject to existing loans secured by mortgages or similar liens on our properties, or may refinance properties acquired on a leveraged basis. We may use the proceeds from any borrowings to refinance existing indebtedness, to refinance investments, including the redevelopment of existing properties, for general working capital or for other purposes when we believe it is advisable.
Dividend Reinvestment Plan
In the future, we may adopt a dividend reinvestment plan that will permit shareholders who elect to participate in the plan to have their cash dividends reinvested in additional common shares.
Regulation
General
Generally, self storage properties are subject to various laws, ordinances and regulations, including those relating to lien sale rights and procedures, public accommodations, insurance, and the environment. Changes in any of these laws, ordinances or regulations could increase the potential liability existing or created by tenants or others on our properties. Laws, ordinances, or regulations affecting development, construction, operation, upkeep, safety and taxation requirements may result in significant unanticipated expenditures, loss of self storage sites or other impairments to operations, which would adversely affect our cash flows from operating activities.
Under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (the "ADA"), all places of public accommodation are required to meet certain federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. For additional information on the ADA, see "Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—Costs associated with complying with the ADA may result in unanticipated expenses."
Insurance activities are subject to state insurance laws and regulations as determined by the particular insurance commissioner for each state in accordance with the McCarran-Ferguson Act, as well as subject to the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and the privacy regulations promulgated by the Federal Trade Commission pursuant thereto.
Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980, as amended ("CERCLA"), and comparable state laws, we may be required to investigate and remediate regulated hazardous materials at one or more of our properties. For additional information on environmental matters and regulation, see "Item 1A. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Business—Environmental compliance costs and liabilities associated with operating our properties may affect our results of operations."
Property management activities are often subject to state real estate brokerage laws and regulations as determined by the particular real estate commission for each state.

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REIT Qualification
We have elected and we believe that we have qualified to be taxed as a REIT under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, (the "Code"), commencing with our taxable year ended on December 31, 2015. We generally will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on our net taxable income to the extent that we distribute annually all of our net taxable income to our shareholders and maintain our qualification as a REIT. We believe that we have been organized and have operated in conformity with the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT under the Code, and we expect that our intended manner of operation will enable us to continue to meet the requirements for qualification and taxation as a REIT. To qualify, and maintain our qualification, as a REIT, we must meet on a continuing basis, through our organization and actual investment and operating results, various requirements under the Code relating to, among other things, the sources of our gross income, the composition and values of our assets, our distribution levels and the diversity of ownership of our shares. If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year and do not qualify for certain statutory relief provisions, we will be subject to U.S. federal income tax at regular corporate rates and may be precluded from qualifying as a REIT for the subsequent four taxable years following the year during which we failed to qualify as a REIT. Even if we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we still may be subject to some U.S. federal, state and local taxes on our income or assets. In addition, subject to maintaining our qualification as a REIT, a portion of our business is conducted through, and a portion of our income is earned by, one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries ("TRSs"), which are subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax at regular rates. Distributions paid by us generally will not be eligible for taxation at the preferential U.S. federal income tax rates that currently apply to certain distributions received by individuals from taxable corporations, unless such distributions are attributable to dividends received by us from a TRS.
U.S. Federal Income Tax Legislation
On December 22, 2017, Congress enacted H.R. 1, also known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 ("TCJA"). The TCJA made major changes to the Internal Revenue Code, including the reduction of the tax rates applicable to individuals and subchapter C corporations, a reduction or elimination of certain deductions (including new limitations on the deductibility of interest expense), permitting immediate expensing of capital expenditures and significant changes in the taxation of earnings from non-U.S. sources. The effect of the significant changes made by the TCJA remains uncertain, and additional administrative guidance is still required in order to fully evaluate the effect of many provisions. In addition, final regulations implementing certain of these new rules have not yet been issued and additional changes or corrections may still be forthcoming. While we do not currently expect this reform to have a significant impact to the Company's consolidated financial statements, stockholders are urged to consult with their tax advisors regarding the effects of the TCJA or other legislative, regulatory or administrative developments on an investment in the Company's common stock.
Competition
We compete with many other entities engaged in real estate investment activities for customers and acquisitions of self storage properties and other assets, including national, regional, and local owners, operators, and developers of self storage properties. We compete based on a number of factors including location, rental rates, security, suitability of the property's design to prospective tenants' needs, and the manner in which the property is operated and marketed. We believe that the primary competition for potential customers comes from other self storage properties within a three to five mile radius. We have positioned our properties within their respective markets as high-quality operations that emphasize tenant convenience, security, and professionalism.
We also may compete with numerous other potential buyers when pursuing a possible property for acquisition, which can increase the potential cost of a project. These competing bidders also may possess greater resources than us and therefore be in a better position to acquire a property. However, our use of OP units and subordinated performance units as transactional currency allows us to structure our acquisitions in tax-deferred transactions. As a result, potential targets who are tax-sensitive might favor us as a suitor.
Our primary national competitors in many of our markets for both tenants and acquisition opportunities include local and regional operators, institutional investors, private equity funds, as well as the other public self storage REITs, including Public Storage, CubeSmart, Extra Space Storage Inc. and Life Storage, Inc.  These entities also seek financing through similar channels to the Company. Therefore, we will continue to compete for institutional investors in a market where funds for real estate investment may decrease.

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Employees
As of December 31, 2019, the Company had 459 employees, which includes employees of our property management platform but does not include persons employed by our PROs. As of December 31, 2019, our PROs, collectively, had approximately 1,100 full-time and part-time employees involved in management, operations, and reporting with respect to our self storage property portfolio.
Available Information
We file registration statements, proxy statements, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those statements and reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC"). Investors may obtain copies of these statements and reports by accessing the SEC's website at www.sec.gov. Our statements and reports and any amendments to any of those statements and reports that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission are available free of charge as soon as reasonably practicable on our website at www.nationalstorageaffiliates.com. The information contained on our website is not incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our common shares are listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "NSA."
Item 1A. Risk Factors
 An investment in our common shares involves a high degree of risk. Before making an investment decision, you should carefully consider the following risk factors, together with the other information contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. If any of the risks discussed in this Annual Report on Form 10-K occurs, our business, financial condition, liquidity and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Risks Related to Our Business
Adverse economic or other conditions in the markets in which we do business and more broadly associated with the real estate industry could negatively affect our occupancy levels and rental rates and therefore our operating results and the value of our self storage properties.
Our operating results are dependent upon our ability to achieve optimal occupancy levels and rental rates at our self storage properties. Adverse economic or other conditions in the markets in which we do business, particularly in our markets in California, Oregon, Florida, Texas, Georgia, Arizona and North Carolina, which accounted for approximately 22%, 11%, 10%, 10%, 6%, 6% and 5%, respectively, of our total rental and other property-related revenues for the year ended December 31, 2019, may lower our occupancy levels and limit our ability to maintain or increase rents or require us to offer rental discounts. No single customer represented a significant concentration of our 2019 revenues. The following adverse developments, among others, in the markets in which we do business may adversely affect the operating performance of our properties:
business layoffs or downsizing, industry slowdowns, relocation of businesses and changing demographics; 
periods of economic slowdown or recession, declining demand for self storage or the public perception that any of these events may occur; 
local or regional real estate market conditions, such as competing properties or products, the oversupply of self storage, vacancies or changes in self storage space market rents, or a reduction in demand for self storage in a particular area; and 
perceptions by prospective tenants of the safety, convenience and attractiveness of our properties and the neighborhoods in which they are located.
We are also susceptible to the effects of adverse macro-economic events and business conditions that can result in higher unemployment, shrinking demand for products, large-scale business failures and tight credit markets. Our results of operations are sensitive to changes in overall economic conditions that impact consumer spending, including discretionary spending, as well as to increased bad debts due to recessionary pressures. Adverse economic conditions affecting disposable consumer income, such as employment levels, business conditions, interest rates and the availability of financing, tax rates, fuel and energy costs, could reduce consumer spending or cause consumers to shift their spending to other products and services. A general reduction in the level of discretionary spending or shifts in consumer discretionary spending could adversely affect our growth and profitability. Our operating results and cash available for distribution could also be adversely impacted if we experience increased operating costs, including maintenance, insurance premiums and real estate taxes, whether due to economic conditions, government

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regulation or otherwise. In addition, our operating expenses, including taxes, insurance, maintenance and debt service payments, may not be reduced even if we experience a reduction in revenues, which may exacerbate the impact on our profitability.
We may not be successful in identifying and consummating suitable acquisitions, adding additional suitable new PROs, or integrating and operating such acquisitions, including integrating them into our financial and operational reporting infrastructure and internal control framework in a timely manner, which may impede our growth.
Our ability to expand through acquisitions is integral to our business strategy and requires us to identify suitable acquisition candidates or investment opportunities that meet our criteria and are compatible with our growth strategy. We may not be successful in identifying suitable properties or other assets that meet our acquisition criteria or in consummating acquisitions on satisfactory terms or at all. Failure to identify or consummate acquisitions will slow our growth, which could in turn adversely affect our share price.
For the potential acquisitions in our captive pipeline, we have not entered into negotiations with the respective owners of these properties and there can be no assurance as to whether we will acquire any of these properties or the actual timing of any such acquisitions. Each captive pipeline property is subject to additional due diligence and the determination by us to pursue the acquisition of the property. In addition, with respect to the captive pipeline properties in which our PROs have a non-controlling ownership interest or no ownership interest, the current owner of each property is not required to offer such property to us and there can be no assurance that we will acquire these properties.
Our ability to acquire properties on favorable terms and successfully integrate and operate them, including integrating them into our financial and operational reporting infrastructure in a timely manner, may be constrained by the following significant risks:
we face competition from national (e.g., large public and private self storage companies, institutional investors and private equity funds), regional and local owners, operators and developers of self storage properties, which may result in higher property acquisition prices and reduced yields; 
we may not be able to achieve satisfactory completion of due diligence investigations and other customary closing conditions; 
we may fail to finance an acquisition on favorable terms or at all; 
we may spend more time and incur more costs than budgeted to make necessary improvements or renovations to acquired properties; 
we may experience difficulties in effectively integrating the financial and operational reporting systems of the properties or portfolios we acquire into (or supplanting such systems with) our financial and operational reporting infrastructure and internal control framework in a timely manner; and 
we may acquire properties subject to liabilities without any recourse, or with only limited recourse, with respect to unknown liabilities such as liabilities for clean-up of undisclosed environmental contamination, tax liabilities, claims by persons dealing with the former owners of the properties and claims for indemnification by general partners, trustees, officers and others indemnified by the former owners of the properties. The sellers or contributors of properties may make limited representations and warranties to us about the properties and may agree to indemnify us for a certain period of time following the closing for breaches of those representations and warranties. However, any resulting liabilities identified may not fall within the scope or time frame covered by the indemnification, and we may be required to bear those liabilities, which may materially and adversely affect our operating results, financial condition and business.
We face competition for tenants.
We compete with many other entities engaged in real estate investment activities for tenants, including national, regional and local owners, operators and developers of self storage properties. Our primary national competitors for tenants in many of our markets are the large public and private self storage companies, institutional investors, and private equity funds. Actions by our competitors may decrease or prevent increases in the occupancy and rental rates, while increasing the operating expenses of our properties.

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Rental revenues are significantly influenced by demand for self storage space generally, and a decrease in such demand would likely have a greater adverse effect on our rental revenues than if we owned a more diversified real estate portfolio.
Because our portfolio of properties consists primarily of self storage properties, we are subject to risks inherent in investments in a single industry. A decrease in the demand for self storage space would have a greater adverse effect on our rental revenues than if we owned a more diversified real estate portfolio. Demand for self storage space has been and could be adversely affected by weakness in the national, regional and local economies, changes in supply of, or demand for, similar or competing self storage properties in an area and the excess amount of self storage space in a particular market. To the extent that any of these conditions occur, they are likely to affect market rents for self storage space, which could cause a decrease in our rental revenue. Any such decrease could impair our operating results, ability to satisfy debt service obligations and ability to make cash distributions to our shareholders.
Increases in taxes and regulatory compliance costs may reduce our income and adversely impact our cash flows.
Increases in income or other taxes generally are not passed through to tenants under leases and may reduce our net income, funds from operations ("FFO"), cash flows, financial condition, ability to pay or refinance our debt obligations, ability to make cash distributions to shareholders, and the trading price of our securities. Similarly, changes in laws increasing the potential liability for environmental conditions existing on properties or increasing the restrictions on discharges or other conditions may result in significant unanticipated expenditures, which could result in similar adverse effects.
Many states and jurisdictions are facing severe budgetary problems. Action that may be taken in response to these problems, such as changes to sales taxes or other governmental efforts, including mandating medical insurance for employees, could adversely impact our business and results of operations.
Our property taxes could increase due to various reasons, including changes in law and a reassessment as a result of our contribution transactions, which could adversely impact our operating results and cash flow.
The value of our properties may be reassessed for property tax purposes by taxing authorities including as a result of our acquisition and contribution transactions. Our property taxes could also increase due to changes in tax rates or removal of limitations on the amount by which our property taxes or property reassessments may increase. For example, there is a vote to remove certain Proposition 13 protections in the State of California for owners of commercial real estate, including self storage properties, which will be included on California's November 2020 ballot. Proposition 13 currently limits annual real estate tax increases of assessed value of real property. If the vote to remove these protections is successful, it would increase the assessed value and/or tax rates applicable to commercial property in California, including self storage properties. We currently have 83 consolidated properties and 10 unconsolidated properties in California. Accordingly, the amount of property taxes we pay in the future may increase substantially from what we have paid in the past or from what we expected in connection with our underwriting activities. If the property taxes we pay increase, our operating results and cash flow would be adversely impacted, and our ability to pay any expected dividends to our shareholders could be adversely affected.
Our storage leases are relatively short-term in nature, which exposes us to the risk that we may have to re-lease our units and we may be unable to do so on attractive terms, on a timely basis or at all.
Our storage leases are relatively short-term in nature, typically month-to-month, which exposes us to the risk that we may have to re-lease our units frequently and we may be unable to do so on attractive terms, on a timely basis or at all. Because these leases generally permit the tenant to leave at the end of the month without penalty, our revenues and operating results may be impacted by declines in market rental rates more quickly than if our leases were for longer terms. In addition, any delay in re-leasing units as vacancies arise would reduce our revenues and harm our operating results.
Security breaches through cyber-attacks, cyber-intrusions, or other methods could disrupt our information technology networks and related systems.
We and our PROs are increasingly dependent upon automated information technology processes and Internet commerce, and many of our and their tenants come from the telephone or over the Internet. Moreover, the nature of our and our PROs' business involves the receipt and retention of certain personal information about such tenants. In many cases, we and our PROs also rely significantly on third-party vendors to retain data, process transactions and provide other systems services. Our networks and operations could be disrupted, and sensitive data could be compromised, by physical or electronic security breaches, targeted against us, our PROs, our vendors or other

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organizations, including financial markets or institutions, including by way of or through cyber-attacks or cyber-intrusions over the Internet, malware, computer viruses, attachments to e-mails, phishing, employee theft or misuse, or inadequate security controls. Although we make efforts to protect the security and integrity of our networks and systems, there can be no assurance that these efforts and measures will be effective or that attempted security breaches or disruptions would not be successful, as such attacks and breaches may be difficult to detect (or not detected at all) and are becoming more sophisticated. In such event, we may experience business interruptions; data loss, ransom, misappropriation, or corruption; theft or misuse of confidential or proprietary information; or litigation and investigation by tenants, governmental or regulatory agencies, or other third parties, which could result in the payment of fines, penalties and other damages. Such events could also have other adverse impacts on us, including breaches of debt covenants or other contractual or REIT compliance obligations, late or misstated financial reports, and significant diversion of management attention and resources. As a result, such events could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows and harm our business reputation or have such effects on our PROs.
We may become subject to litigation or threatened litigation that may divert management's time and attention, require us to pay damages and expenses or restrict the operation of our business.
We may become subject to disputes, including class or collective actions, with customers (or prospective customers), employees, commercial parties with whom we maintain relationships or other parties with whom we do business or have interacted. Any such dispute could result in litigation between us and the other parties. Whether or not any dispute actually proceeds to litigation, we may be required to devote significant management time and attention to its successful resolution (through litigation, settlement or otherwise), which would detract from our management's ability to focus on our business. Any such resolution could involve the payment of damages or expenses by us, which may be significant and may not be covered by insurance. In addition, any such resolution could involve our agreement with terms that restrict the operation of our business.
There are other commercial parties, at both a local and national level, that may assert that our use of our brand names and other intellectual property conflict with their rights to use brand names and other intellectual property that they consider to be similar to ours. Any such commercial dispute and related resolution would involve all of the risks described above, including, in particular, our agreement to restrict the use of our brand name or other intellectual property.
We also could be sued for personal injuries and/or property damage occurring on our properties. The liability insurance we maintain may not cover all costs and expenses arising from such lawsuits.
The acquisition of new properties that lack operating history with us will make it more difficult to predict our operating results.
With respect to acquisitions, if we fail to accurately estimate occupancy levels, rental rates, operating costs or costs of improvements to bring an acquired property up to the standards established for our intended market position, the performance of the property may be below expectations. Acquired properties may have characteristics or deficiencies affecting their valuation or profitability potential that we have not yet discovered. We cannot assure that the performance of properties acquired by us will increase or be maintained following our acquisition.
Costs associated with complying with the ADA may result in unanticipated expenses.
Under the ADA, places of public accommodation are required to meet certain federal requirements related to access and use by disabled persons. A number of additional U.S. federal, state and local laws may also require modifications to our properties, or restrict certain further renovations of the properties, with respect to access thereto by disabled persons. Noncompliance with the ADA could result in the imposition of fines or an award of damages to private litigants and also could result in an order to correct any non-complying feature, which could result in substantial capital expenditures. If one or more of our properties is not in compliance with the ADA or other legislation, then we would be required to incur additional costs to bring the property into compliance. If we incur substantial costs to comply with the ADA or other legislation, our financial condition, results of operations, cash flow, per share trading price of our common shares and our ability to satisfy our debt service obligations and to make cash distributions to our shareholders could be adversely affected.

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Environmental compliance costs and liabilities associated with operating our properties may affect our results of operations.
Under various U.S. federal, state and local laws, ordinances and regulations, owners and operators of real estate may be liable for the costs of investigating and remediating certain hazardous substances or other regulated materials on or in such property. CERCLA and comparable state laws typically impose strict joint and several liabilities without regard to whether the owner or operator knew of, or was responsible for, the presence of such substances or materials. The presence of such substances or materials, or the failure to properly remediate such substances, may adversely affect the owner's or operator's ability to lease, sell or rent such property or to borrow using such property as collateral. Persons who arrange for the disposal or treatment of hazardous substances or other regulated materials may be liable for the costs of removal or remediation of such substances at a disposal or treatment facility, whether or not such facility is owned or operated by such person. Certain environmental laws impose liability for release of asbestos-containing materials into the air and third-parties may seek recovery from owners or operators of real properties for personal injury associated with asbestos-containing materials.
Certain environmental laws also impose liability, without regard to knowledge or fault, for removal or remediation of hazardous substances or other regulated materials upon owners and operators of contaminated property even after they no longer own or operate the property. Moreover, the past or present owner or operator of a property from which a release emanates could be liable for any personal injuries or property damages that may result from such releases, as well as any damages to natural resources that may arise from such releases.
Certain environmental laws impose compliance obligations on owners and operators of real property with respect to the management of hazardous materials and other regulated substances. For example, environmental laws govern the management of asbestos-containing materials and lead-based paint. Failure to comply with these laws can result in penalties or other sanctions.
In connection with the ownership, operation and management of our current or past properties and any properties that we may acquire and/or manage in the future, we could be legally responsible for environmental liabilities or costs relating to a release of hazardous substances or other regulated materials at or emanating from such property. In order to assess the potential for such liability, we conduct an environmental assessment of each property prior to acquisition and manage our properties in accordance with environmental laws while we own or operate them. We have engaged qualified, reputable and adequately insured environmental consulting firms to perform environmental site assessments of all of our properties prior to acquisition and are not aware of any environmental issues that are expected to materially impact the operations of any property.
No assurances can be given that existing environmental studies with respect to any of our properties reveal all environmental liabilities, that any prior owner or operator of our properties did not create any material environmental condition not known to us, or that a material environmental condition does not otherwise exist as to any one or more of our properties. There also exists the risk that material environmental conditions, liabilities or compliance concerns may have arisen after the review was completed or may arise in the future. Finally, future laws, ordinances or regulations and future interpretations of existing laws, ordinances or regulations may impose additional material environmental liability.
We rely on on-site personnel to maximize tenant satisfaction at each of our properties, and any difficulties we or they encounter in hiring, training and maintaining skilled on-site personnel may harm our operating performance.
The general professionalism of site managers and staff are contributing factors to a site's ability to successfully secure rentals and retain tenants and we rely on on-site personnel to maintain clean and secure self storage properties. If we or our PROs are unable to successfully recruit, train and retain qualified on-site personnel, the quality of service we and our PROs strive to provide at our properties could be adversely affected, which could lead to decreased occupancy levels and reduced operating performance of our properties.
We and certain of our PROs have tenant insurance- and/or tenant protection plan-related arrangements that are in some cases subject to state-specific governmental regulation, which may adversely affect our results.
We and certain of our PROs have tenant insurance- and/or tenant protection plan-related arrangements with regulated insurance companies and our tenants. Some of our PROs earn access fees in connection with these arrangements. We receive a portion of the fees from these PROs. The tenant insurance and tenant protection plan businesses, including the payments associated with these arrangements, are in some cases subject to state-specific

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governmental regulation. State regulatory authorities generally have broad discretion to grant, renew and revoke licenses and approvals, to promulgate, interpret and implement regulations, and to evaluate compliance with regulations through periodic examinations, audits and investigations of the affairs of insurance industry participants. Although these arrangements are managed by our property management platform and/or certain of our PROs who have developed marketing programs and management procedures to navigate the regulatory environment, as a result of regulatory or private action in any jurisdiction in which we operate, we may be temporarily or permanently suspended from continuing some or all of our tenant insurance- and/or tenant protection plan-related activities, or otherwise fined or penalized or suffer an adverse judgment, which could adversely affect our business and results of operations.
Privacy concerns could result in regulatory changes that may harm our business.
Personal privacy has become a significant issue in the jurisdictions in which we operate. Many jurisdictions in which we operate have imposed or in the future may impose restrictions and requirements on the use of personal information by those collecting such information. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, which became effective as of January 1, 2020, provides consumers with expansive rights and control over personal information obtained by or shared with certain covered businesses. Changes to law or regulations or the passage of new laws affecting privacy, if applicable to our business, could impose additional costs and liability on us and could limit our use and disclosure of such information.
Uninsured losses or losses in excess of our insurance coverage could adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
We maintain comprehensive liability, fire, flood, earthquake, wind (as deemed necessary or as required by our lenders), extended coverage and rental loss insurance with respect to our properties. Certain types of losses, however, may be either uninsurable or not economically insurable either in total or in part (due to location or otherwise), such as losses due to earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, riots, acts of war or terrorism. Should an uninsured loss occur, we could lose both our investment in and anticipated profits and cash flow from a property. In addition, if any such loss is insured, we may be required to pay significant amounts on any claim for recovery of such a loss prior to our insurer being obligated to reimburse us for the loss, or the amount of the loss may exceed our coverage for the loss. We currently self-insure a portion of our commercial insurance deductible risk through our captive insurance company. To the extent that our captive insurance company is unable to bear that risk, we may be required to fund additional capital to our captive insurance company or we may be required to bear that loss. As a result, our operating results may be adversely affected.
Illiquidity of real estate investments could significantly impede our ability to respond to adverse changes in the performance of our properties.
Because real estate investments are relatively illiquid, our ability to promptly sell one or more properties in our portfolio in response to changing economic, financial and investment conditions is limited. The real estate market is affected by many factors, such as general economic conditions, availability of financing, interest rates and other factors, including supply and demand, that are beyond our control. We cannot predict whether we will be able to sell any property for the price or on the terms set by us or whether any price or other terms offered by a prospective purchaser would be acceptable to us. We also cannot predict the length of time needed to find a willing purchaser and to close the sale of a property. In addition, we may be required to expend funds to correct defects or to make improvements before a property can be sold. We cannot assure you that we will have funds available to correct those defects or to make those improvements.
In acquiring a property, we may agree to transfer restrictions that materially restrict us from selling that property for a period of time or impose other restrictions, such as a limitation on the amount of debt that can be placed or repaid on that property. For example, we are party to certain agreements with our PROs that provide that, until March 31, 2023, our operating partnership shall not, and shall cause its subsidiaries not to, sell, dispose or otherwise transfer any property that is a part of the applicable self storage property portfolio relating to a series of subordinated performance units without the consent of the partners (including us) holding at least 50% of the then outstanding OP units and the partners holding at least 50% of the then outstanding series of subordinated performance units that relate to the applicable property, except for sales, dispositions or other transfers of a property to wholly owned subsidiaries of our operating partnership. These restrictions may require us to keep certain properties that we would otherwise sell, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, cash flow and ability to execute our business plan.

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Our business could be harmed if key personnel terminate their employment with us.
Our success depends, to a significant extent, on the continued services of Arlen D. Nordhagen, Tamara D. Fischer and Brandon S. Togashi and the other members of our senior management team. We have entered into employment agreements with Mr. Nordhagen, Ms. Fischer and Mr. Togashi and these employment agreements provide for an initial three-year term of employment and automatic one-year extensions thereafter unless either party provides at least 90 days' notice of non-renewal. Notwithstanding these agreements, there can be no assurance that any of them will remain employed by us. The loss of services of one or more members of our senior management team could harm our business and our prospects.
We invest in strategic joint ventures that subject us to additional risks.
Some of our investments are, and in the future may be, structured as strategic joint ventures. Part of our strategy is to opportunistically partner with institutional funds and other institutional investors to acquire attractive portfolios through a promoted return structure. These arrangements are driven by the magnitude of capital required to complete the acquisitions and maintain the acquired portfolios. Such arrangements involve risks not present where a third party is not involved, including the possibility that partners or co-venturers might become bankrupt or otherwise fail to fund their share of required capital contributions. Additionally, partners or co-venturers might at any time have economic or other business interests or goals different from us and or in competition with us.
Joint ventures generally provide for a reduced level of control over an acquired project because governance rights are shared with others. Accordingly, certain major decisions relating to joint ventures, including decisions relating to, among other things, the approval of annual budgets, sales and acquisitions of properties, financings, and certain actions relating to bankruptcy, are often made by a majority vote of the investors or by separate agreements that are reached with respect to individual decisions. In addition, such decisions may be subject to the risk that the partners or co-venturers may make business, financial or management decisions with which we do not agree or take risks or otherwise act in a manner that does not serve our best interests. Because we may not have the ability to exercise control over such operations, we may not be able to realize some or all of the benefits that we believe will be created from our involvement. At times, we and our partners or co-venturers may also each have the right to trigger a buy-sell arrangement, which could cause us to sell our interest, or acquire our partners' or co-venturers' interest, at a time when we otherwise would not have initiated such a transaction. If any of the foregoing were to occur, our business, financial condition and results of operations could suffer as a result.
Risks Related to Our Structure and Our Relationships with Our PROs
Some of our PROs have limited experience operating under the Company's capital structure, and we may not be able to achieve the desired outcomes that the structure is intended to produce.
Some of our PROs have limited experience operating under our capital structure. As a means of incentivizing our PROs to drive operating performance and support the sustainability of the operating cash flow from the properties they manage on our behalf, we issued each PRO subordinated performance units aimed at aligning the interests of our PROs with our interests and those of our shareholders. The subordinated performance units are entitled to distributions exclusively tied to the performance of each PRO's managed portfolios but only after minimum performance thresholds are satisfied. Our issuance of such units, however, may have been and could be based on inaccurate valuations and thus misallocated, which would limit or eliminate the effectiveness of our intended incentive-based program. Moreover, difficulties in aligning incentives and implementing our structure could allow a PRO to underperform without triggering our right to terminate the applicable facilities portfolio and asset management agreements and transfer management rights of the PRO to us (or a designee) or cause our management to be distracted from other aspects of our business, which could adversely affect our operating results and business.
We are restricted in making certain property sales on account of agreements with our PROs that may require us to keep certain properties that we would otherwise sell.
The partnership unit designations related to our subordinated performance units provide that, until March 31, 2023, our operating partnership may not sell, dispose or otherwise transfer any property that is a part of the applicable self storage property portfolio relating to a series of subordinated performance units without the consent of the partners (including us) holding at least 50% of the then outstanding OP units and the consent of partners holding at least 50% of the then outstanding series of subordinated performance units that relate to the applicable property, except for sales, dispositions or other transfers of a property to wholly owned subsidiaries of our operating

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partnership. This restriction may require us to keep certain properties that we would otherwise sell, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, cash flow and ability to execute our business plan. In addition, we may enter into agreements with future PROs that contain the same or similar restrictions or that impose such restrictions for different periods.
Our ability to terminate our facilities portfolio management agreements and asset management agreements with a PRO is limited, which may adversely affect our ability to execute our business plan.
We may elect to terminate our facilities portfolio management agreements and asset management agreements with a PRO and transfer property management responsibilities over the properties managed by such PRO to us (or our designee), (i) upon certain defaults by a PRO as set forth in these agreements, or (ii) if the PRO's properties, on a portfolio basis, fail to meet certain pre-determined performance thresholds for more than two consecutive calendar years or if the operating cash flow generated by the properties of the PRO for any calendar year falls below a level that will enable us to fund minimum levels of distributions, debt service payments attributable to the properties, and fund the properties' allocable operating expenses. Consequently, to the extent a PRO complies with these covenants, standards, and minimum requirements, we may not be able to terminate the applicable facilities portfolio management agreements and asset management agreements and transfer property management responsibilities over such properties even if our board of trustees believes that such PRO is not properly executing our business plan and/or is failing to operate its properties to their full potential. Moreover, transferring the management responsibilities over the properties managed by a PRO may be costly or difficult to implement or may be delayed, even if we are able to and believe that such a change in portfolio and property management would be beneficial to us and our shareholders.
We may less vigorously pursue enforcement of terms of agreements entered into with our PROs because of conflicts of interest with our PROs.
Our PROs are entities that have contributed or will contribute through contribution agreements, self storage properties, or legal entities owning self storage properties, to our operating partnership or DownREIT partnerships in exchange for ownership interests in our operating partnership or DownREIT partnerships. As part of each transaction, our PROs make and have made limited representations and warranties to our operating partnership regarding the entities, properties and other assets to be acquired by our operating partnership or DownREIT partnerships in the contribution and generally agree to indemnify our operating partnership for 12 months after the closing of the contribution for breaches of such representations. Such indemnification is limited, however, and our operating partnership is not entitled to any other indemnification in connection with the contributions. In addition, following each contribution from a PRO, the day-to-day operations of each of the managed properties will be managed by the PRO who was the principal of the applicable self storage property portfolios prior to the contribution. In addition, certain key persons of our PROs are members of our board of trustees, members of our PRO advisory committee or are executive officers of the Company. Consequently, we may choose not to enforce, or to enforce less vigorously, our rights under these agreements and any other agreements with our PROs due to our desire to maintain our ongoing relationship with our PROs, which could adversely affect our operating results and business.
We own self storage properties in some of the same geographic regions as our PROs and may compete for tenants with other properties managed by our PROs.
Pursuant to the facilities portfolio management agreements with our PROs, each PRO has agreed that, without our consent, the PRO will not, and it will cause its affiliates not to, enter into any new agreements or arrangements for the management of additional self storage properties, other than the properties we are not acquiring and the properties each PRO contributes to our operating partnership. However, we have not and will not acquire all of the self storage properties of our PROs. We will therefore own self storage properties in some of the same geographic regions as our PROs, and, as a result, we may compete for tenants with our PROs. This competition may affect our ability to attract and retain tenants and may reduce the rental rates we are able to charge, which could adversely affect our operating results and business.
Our PROs may engage in other activities, diverting their attention from the management of our properties, which could adversely affect the execution of our business plan and our operating results.
Our PROs and their employees and personnel are in the business of managing self storage properties. We have agreed that our PROs may continue to manage properties not included in our portfolio, and our PROs are not obligated to dedicate any specific employees or personnel exclusively to the management of our properties. As a

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result, their time and efforts may be diverted from the management of our properties, which could adversely affect the execution of our business plan and our operating results.
When a PRO elects or is required to "retire" we may become exposed to new and additional costs and risks.
Under the facilities portfolio management agreements, after a two year period following the later of completion of our initial public offering or the initial contribution of their properties to us, a PRO may elect, or be required, to "retire" from the self storage business. Upon a retirement event, management of the properties will be transferred to us (or our designee) in exchange for OP units with a value equal to four times the average of the normalized annual EBITDA from the management contracts related to such PRO's managed portfolio over the immediately preceding 24-month period. As a result of this transfer, we may become exposed to new and additional costs and risks. Accordingly, the retirement of a PRO may adversely effect our financial condition and operating results. For example, in connection with a retiring PRO's internalization into the Company, there can be no assurance that the Company will be able to retain such retiring PRO's employees, successfully hire new employees, or effectively integrate such employees and the retiring PRO's property management platform into the Company's or another PRO's property management platforms.
Our formation transactions and subsequent contribution transactions were generally not negotiated on an arm's-length basis and may not be as favorable to us as if they had been negotiated with unaffiliated third parties.
We did not conduct arm's-length negotiations with certain of the parties involved regarding the terms of the formation transactions and subsequent contribution transactions, including the contribution agreements, facilities portfolio management agreements, sales commission agreements, asset management agreements and registration rights agreements. In the course of structuring the formation transactions and subsequent contribution transactions, certain members of our senior management team and other contributors had the ability to influence the type and level of benefits that they received from us. Accordingly, the terms of the formation transactions and subsequent contribution transactions may not solely reflect the best interests of us or our shareholders and may be overly favorable to the other party to such transactions and agreements.
Conflicts of interest could arise with respect to certain transactions between the holders of OP units (including subordinated performance units), which include our PROs, on the one hand, and us and our shareholders, on the other.
Conflicts of interest could arise with respect to the interests of holders of OP units (including subordinated performance units), on the one hand, which include members of our senior management team, PROs, and trustees (including Arlen D. Nordhagen, our executive chairman of the board of trustees and former chief executive officer) and us and our shareholders, on the other. In particular, the consummation of certain business combinations, the sale, disposition or transfer of certain of our assets or the repayment of certain indebtedness that may be desirable to us and our shareholders could have adverse tax consequences to such unit holders. In addition, our trustees and officers have duties to the Company under applicable Maryland law in connection with their management of the Company. At the same time, we have fiduciary duties, as a general partner, to our operating partnership and to the limited partners under Delaware law in connection with the management of our operating partnership. Our duties as a general partner to our operating partnership and its partners may come into conflict with the duties of our trustees and officers to the Company and our shareholders. The partnership agreement of our operating partnership does not require us to resolve such conflicts in favor of either the Company or the limited partners in our operating partnership. Further, there can be no assurance that any procedural protections we implement to address these or other conflicts of interest will result in optimal outcomes for us and our shareholders.
The partnership agreement of our operating partnership contains provisions that may delay, defer or prevent a change in control.
The partnership agreement of our operating partnership provides that subordinated performance unit holders holding more than 50% of the voting power of the subordinated performance units must approve certain change of control transactions involving us unless, as a result of such transactions, the holders of subordinated performance units are offered a choice (1) to allow their subordinated performance units to remain outstanding without the terms thereof being materially and adversely changed or the subordinated performance units are converted into or exchanged for equity securities of the surviving entity having terms and conditions that are substantially similar to those of the subordinated performance units (it being understood that we may not be the surviving entity and that the parent of the surviving entity or the surviving entity may not be publicly traded) or (2) to receive for each subordinated performance unit an amount of cash, securities or other property payable to a holder of OP units had

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such holder exercised its right to exchange its subordinated performance units for OP units without taking into consideration a specified conversion penalty associated with such an exchange. In addition, in the case of any such change of control transactions in which we have not received the consent of OP unit holders holding more than 50% of the OP units (other than those held by the Company or its subsidiaries) and of subordinated performance unit holders holding more than 50% of the voting power of the subordinated performance units (other than those held by the Company or its subsidiaries), such transaction is required to be approved by a companywide vote of limited partners holding more than 50% of our outstanding OP units in which OP units (including for this purpose OP units held by us and our subsidiaries) are voted and subordinated performance units (not held by us and our subsidiaries) are voted on an applicable as converted basis and in which we will be deemed to vote the OP units held by us and our subsidiaries in proportion to the manner in which all of our outstanding common shares were voted at a shareholders meeting relating to such transaction. These approval rights could delay, deter, or prevent a transaction or a change in control that might involve a premium price for our common shares or otherwise be in the best interests of our shareholders.
We may change our investment and financing strategies and enter into new lines of business without shareholder consent, which may subject us to different risks.
We may change our business and financing strategies and enter into new lines of business at any time without the consent of our shareholders, which could result in our making investments and engaging in business activities that are different from, and possibly riskier than, the investments and businesses described in this document. A change in our strategy or our entry into new lines of business may increase our exposure to other risks or real estate market fluctuations.
Certain provisions of Maryland law could inhibit a change in our control.
Certain provisions of the Maryland General Corporation Law (the "MGCL") applicable to a Maryland real estate investment trust may have the effect of inhibiting a third-party from making a proposal to acquire us or of impeding a change in our control under circumstances that otherwise could provide the holders of our common shares with the opportunity to realize a premium over the then prevailing market price of such shares. The "business combination" provisions of the MGCL, subject to limitations, prohibit certain business combinations between a REIT and an "interested shareholder" (defined generally as any person who beneficially owns 10% or more of the voting power of our then outstanding voting shares or an affiliate or associate of ours who, at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question, was the beneficial owner, directly or indirectly, of 10% or more of our then outstanding voting shares) or an affiliate thereof for five years after the most recent date on which the shareholder becomes an interested shareholder and, thereafter, imposes special appraisal rights and special shareholder voting requirements on these combinations. These provisions of the MGCL do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by the board of trustees of a REIT prior to the time that the interested shareholder becomes an interested shareholder. Pursuant to the statute, our board of trustees has by resolution exempted business combinations between us and (1) any other person, provided that the business combination is first approved by our board of trustees (including a majority of trustees who are not affiliates or associates of such person), (2) Arlen D. Nordhagen and any of his affiliates and associates and (3) any person acting in concert with the foregoing, from these provisions of the MGCL. As a result, such persons may be able to enter into business combinations with us that may not be in the best interests of our shareholders without compliance by us with the supermajority vote requirements and other provisions of the statute. This resolution, however, may be altered or repealed in whole or in part at any time. If this resolution is repealed, or our board of trustees does not otherwise approve a business combination, this statute may discourage others from trying to acquire control of us and increase the difficulty of consummating any offer.
The "control share" provisions of the MGCL provide that holders of "control shares" of a Maryland real estate investment trust (defined as voting shares which, when aggregated with all other shares controlled by the shareholder, entitle the shareholder to exercise one of three increasing ranges of voting power in the election of trustees) acquired in a "control share acquisition" (defined as the direct or indirect acquisition of ownership or control of issued and outstanding "control shares," subject to certain exceptions) have no voting rights with respect to such shares except to the extent approved by our shareholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of all the votes entitled to be cast on the matter, excluding votes entitled to be cast by the acquirer of control shares, our officers and our trustees who are also our employees. Our bylaws contain a provision exempting from the control share acquisition statute any and all acquisitions by any person of our shares. There can be no assurance that this provision will not be amended or eliminated at any time in the future.

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Our authorized but unissued common and preferred shares may prevent a change in our control.
Our declaration of trust authorizes us to issue additional authorized but unissued common shares and preferred shares. In addition, our board of trustees may, without common shareholder approval, increase the aggregate number of our authorized shares or the number of shares of any class or series that we have authority to issue and classify or reclassify any unissued common shares or preferred shares, and may set or change the preferences, rights and other terms of any unissued classified or reclassified shares. As a result, among other things, our board may establish a class or series of common shares or preferred shares that could delay or prevent a transaction or a change in our control that might involve a premium price for our common shares or otherwise be in the best interests of our shareholders.
Our rights and the rights of our shareholders to take action against our trustees and officers are limited, which could limit your recourse in the event of actions not in your best interest.
Our declaration of trust limits the liability of our present and former trustees and officers to us and our shareholders for money damages to the maximum extent permitted under Maryland law. Under current Maryland law, our present and former trustees and officers will not have any liability to us or our shareholders for money damages other than liability resulting from:
actual receipt of an improper benefit or profit in money, property or services; or 
active and deliberate dishonesty by the trustee or officer that was established by a final judgment and is material to the cause of action.
Our declaration of trust authorizes us to indemnify our present and former trustees and officers for actions taken by them in those capacities to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law. Our bylaws require us to indemnify each present and former trustee or officer, to the maximum extent permitted by Maryland law, in connection with any proceeding to which he or she is made, or threatened to be made, a party to or witness in by reason of his or her service to us as a trustee or officer or in certain other capacities. In addition, we may be obligated to pay or reimburse the expenses incurred by our present and former trustees and officers without requiring a preliminary determination of their ultimate entitlement to indemnification. As a result, we and our shareholders may have more limited rights against our present and former trustees and officers than might otherwise exist absent the current provisions in our declaration of trust and bylaws or that might exist with other companies, which could limit your recourse in the event of actions not in your best interest.
Our declaration of trust contains provisions that make removal of our trustees difficult, which could make it difficult for our shareholders to effect changes to our management.
Our declaration of trust provides that, subject to the rights of holders of one or more classes or series of preferred shares, a trustee may be removed with or without cause, by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast generally in the election of trustees. Vacancies on our board of trustees generally may be filled only by a majority of the remaining trustees in office, even if less than a quorum. These requirements make it more difficult to change our management by removing and replacing trustees and may prevent a change in our control that is in the best interests of our shareholders.
Restrictions on ownership and transfer of our shares may restrict change of control or business combination opportunities in which our shareholders might receive a premium for their shares.
In order for us to qualify as a REIT for each taxable year, no more than 50% in value of our outstanding shares may be owned, directly or constructively, by five or fewer individuals during the last half of any calendar year, and at least 100 persons must beneficially own our shares during at least 335 days of a taxable year of 12 months, or during a proportionate portion of a shorter taxable year. "Individuals" for this purpose include natural persons, private foundations, some employee benefit plans and trusts, and some charitable trusts. To assist us in preserving our REIT qualification, among other purposes, our declaration of trust generally prohibits, among other limitations, any person from beneficially or constructively owning more than 9.8% in value or in number of shares, whichever is more restrictive, of our aggregate outstanding shares of all classes and series, the outstanding shares of any class or series of our preferred shares or our outstanding common shares. These ownership limits and the other restrictions on ownership and transfer of our shares contained in our declaration of trust could have the effect of discouraging a takeover or other transaction in which holders of our common shares might receive a premium for their shares over the then prevailing market price or which holders might believe to be otherwise in their best interests. Our board of

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trustees has established exemptions from these ownership limits which permits certain of our institutional investors to hold up to 20% of our common shares and up to 25% of our preferred shares.
Risks Related to Our Debt Financings
There are risks associated with our indebtedness.
There is no assurance that we will succeed in securing expansions of our credit facility, 2023 Term Loan Facility or 2028 Term Loan Facility, if we desire to do so.
Our level of debt and the limitations imposed on us by our debt agreements could have significant adverse consequences, including the following:
our cash flow may be insufficient to meet our required principal and interest payments; 
we may be unable to borrow additional funds as needed or on favorable terms, including to make acquisitions or to continue to make distributions required to maintain our qualification as a REIT; 
we may be unable to refinance our indebtedness at maturity or the refinancing terms may be less favorable than the terms of our original indebtedness; 
because a portion of our debt may bear interest at variable rates that are not hedged, a material increase in interest rates could materially increase our interest expense; 
we may be forced to dispose of one or more of our properties, possibly on disadvantageous terms; 
our debt level could place us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors with less debt; 
we may experience increased vulnerability to economic and industry downturns, reducing our ability to respond to changing business and economic conditions; 
we may default on our obligations and the lenders or mortgagees may foreclose on our properties that secure their loans and receive an assignment of rents and leases; 
we may default on our obligations and the lenders or mortgagees may enforce our guarantees; 
we may violate restrictive covenants in our loan documents, which would entitle the lenders to accelerate our debt obligations; and 
our default under any one of our mortgage loans with cross-default or cross-collateralization provisions could result in a default on other indebtedness or result in the foreclosures of other properties.
Disruptions in the financial markets could affect our ability to obtain debt financing on reasonable terms or at all and have other adverse effects on us.
Uncertainty in the credit markets may negatively impact our ability to access additional debt financing or to refinance existing debt maturities on favorable terms (or at all), which may negatively affect our ability to make acquisitions. A downturn in the credit markets may cause us to seek alternative sources of potentially less attractive financing, and may require us to adjust our business plans accordingly. In addition, these factors may make it more difficult for us to sell properties or may adversely affect the price we receive for properties that we do sell, as prospective buyers may experience increased costs of debt financing or difficulties in obtaining debt financing.
We depend on external sources of capital that are outside of our control, which could adversely affect our ability to acquire or develop properties, satisfy our debt obligations and/or make distributions to shareholders.
We depend on external sources of capital to acquire properties, to satisfy our debt obligations and to make distributions to our shareholders required to maintain our qualification as a REIT, and these sources of capital may not be available on favorable terms, or at all. Our access to external sources of capital depends on a number of factors, including the market's perception of our growth potential and our current and potential future earnings and our ability to continue to qualify as a REIT for U.S. federal income tax purposes. If we are unable to obtain external sources of capital, we may not be able to acquire properties when strategic opportunities exist, satisfy our debt obligations or make cash distributions to our shareholders that would permit us to qualify as a REIT or avoid paying tax on all of our net taxable income.

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Increases in interest rates may increase our interest expense and adversely affect our cash flow and our ability to service our indebtedness and make cash distributions to our shareholders, and our decision to hedge against interest rate risk might not be effective.
As of December 31, 2019, we had approximately $1.5 billion of debt outstanding, of which all debt subject to variable interest rates was fixed pursuant to interest rate swap agreements with no debt subject to variable interest rates (excluding variable-rate debt subject to interest rate swaps). Although the credit markets have recently experienced historic lows in interest rates, if interest rates rise, the interest rates on variable-rate debt that we may incur in the future could be higher than current levels, which could increase our financing costs and decrease our cash flow and our ability to pay cash distributions to our shareholders.
Although we have historically sought, and may in the future seek, to manage our exposure to interest rate volatility by using interest rate hedging arrangements, these arrangements may not be effective. Developing an effective interest rate risk strategy is complex and no strategy can completely insulate us from risks associated with interest rate fluctuations. Failure to hedge effectively against interest rate changes may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and ability to make cash distributions to our shareholders.
The terms and covenants relating to our indebtedness could adversely impact our economic performance.
Our credit facility, 2023 Term Loan Facility, 2028 Term Loan Facility, 2029 Term Loan Facility and Senior Unsecured Notes contain (and any new or amended facility we may enter into from time to time will likely contain) customary affirmative and negative covenants, including financial covenants that, among other things, cap our total leverage at 60% of our gross asset value, provided, however, that we are permitted to maintain a ratio of up to 65% up to two (2) consecutive fiscal quarters immediately following the quarter in which a material acquisition (as defined in our credit facility, 2023 Term Loan Facility, 2028 Term Loan Facility, 2029 Term Loan Facility and Senior Unsecured Notes) occurs, require us to have a maximum unsecured debt to unencumbered asset value ratio not to exceed 60%, provided, however, the we are be permitted to maintain a ratio of up to 65% up to two (2) consecutive fiscal quarters immediately following the quarter in which a material acquisition (as defined in our credit facility, 2023 Term Loan Facility, 2028 Term Loan Facility, 2029 Term Loan Facility and Senior Unsecured Notes) occurs. In the event that we fail to satisfy our covenants, we would be in default under our credit agreements or note purchase agreement and may be required to repay such debt with capital from other sources. Under such circumstances, other sources of debt or equity capital may not be available to us, or may be available only on unattractive terms. Moreover, the presence of such covenants could cause us to operate our business with a view toward compliance with such covenants, which might not produce optimal returns for shareholders.
Uncertainty regarding the London interbank offered rate ("LIBOR") may adversely impact our borrowings and interest rating hedging.
In July 2017, the U.K. Financial Conduct Authority announced that it would cease to compel banks to participate in setting LIBOR as a benchmark by the end of 2021 (the "LIBOR Transition Date"). It is unclear if LIBOR will cease to exist at that time, whether new methods of calculating LIBOR will be established, or if an alternative reference rate will be established. The Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a steering committee comprised of large U.S. financial institutions convened by the U.S. Federal Reserve, has recommended the Secured Overnight Financing Rate ("SOFR") as a more robust reference rate alternative to U.S. dollar LIBOR. SOFR is calculated based on overnight transactions under repurchase agreements, backed by Treasury securities. SOFR is observed and backward looking, which stands in contrast with LIBOR under the current methodology, which is an estimated forward-looking rate and relies, to some degree, on the expert judgment of submitting panel members. Given that SOFR is a secured rate backed by government securities, it will be a rate that does not take into account bank credit risk (as is the case with LIBOR). SOFR is therefore likely to be lower than LIBOR and is less likely to correlate with the funding costs of financial institutions. Whether or not SOFR attains market traction as a LIBOR replacement tool remains in question. As such, the future of LIBOR at this time is uncertain. Many of our debt agreements and our interest rate swap agreements are linked to LIBOR, including our Credit Facility, 2023 Term Loan Facility, 2028 Term Loan Facility and 2029 Term Loan Facility. Before the LIBOR Transition Date, we may need to amend such agreements that utilize LIBOR as a factor in determining the interest rate based on a new standard that is established, if any. However, these efforts may not be successful in mitigating the legal and financial risk from changing the reference rate in our legacy agreements. Furthermore, the transition away from LIBOR may adversely impact our ability to manage and hedge exposures to fluctuations in interest rates using derivative instruments. There is no guarantee that a transition from LIBOR to an alternative will not result in financial market

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disruptions, significant increases in benchmark rates, or borrowing costs to borrowers, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, and the market price of our common shares.
Risks Related to Our Qualification as a REIT
Our failure to remain qualified as a REIT would subject us to U.S. federal income tax and applicable state and local taxes, which would reduce the amount of operating cash flow to our shareholders.
We have elected and we believe that we have qualified to be taxed as a REIT commencing with our taxable year ended December 31, 2015. We have not requested, and do not intend to request a ruling from the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS"), that we qualify as a REIT. Qualification as a REIT involves the application of highly technical and complex Code provisions and Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder for which there are limited judicial and administrative interpretations. The complexity of these provisions and of applicable Treasury Regulations is greater in the case of a REIT that, like us, holds its assets through partnerships, and judicial and administrative interpretations of the U.S. federal income tax laws governing REIT qualification are limited. To qualify as a REIT, we must meet, on an ongoing basis through actual operating results, various tests regarding the nature and diversification of our assets and our income, the ownership of our outstanding shares and the amount of our distributions. Our compliance with the REIT income and quarterly asset requirements also depends upon our ability to manage successfully the composition of our income and assets on an ongoing basis. Our ability to satisfy these asset tests depends upon our analysis of the characterization and fair market values of our assets, some of which are not susceptible to a precise determination, and for which we will not obtain independent appraisals. Moreover, new legislation, court decisions or administrative guidance may, in each case possibly with retroactive effect, make it more difficult or impossible for us to qualify as a REIT. Thus, while we believe that we have been organized and operated and we intend to operate so that we will continue to qualify as a REIT, given the highly complex nature of the rules governing REITs, the ongoing importance of factual determinations and the possibility of future changes in our circumstances, no assurance can be given that we have qualified or will so qualify for any particular year. These considerations also might restrict the types of assets that we can acquire or services that we can provide in the future.
If we fail to qualify as a REIT in any taxable year, and we do not qualify for certain statutory relief provisions, we would be required to pay U.S. federal income tax on our taxable income at regular corporate rates, and distributions to our shareholders would not be deductible by us in determining our taxable income. In such a case, we might need to borrow money, sell assets, or reduce or even cease making distributions in order to pay our taxes. Our payment of income tax would reduce significantly the amount of operating cash flow to our shareholders. Furthermore, if we fail to maintain our qualification as a REIT, we no longer would be required to make distributions to our shareholders. In addition, unless we were eligible for certain statutory relief provisions, we could not re-elect to be taxed as a REIT until the fifth calendar year following the year in which we failed to qualify.
Even if we qualify as a REIT, we may face other tax liabilities that reduce our cash flow.
Even if we qualify for taxation as a REIT, we may be subject to certain U.S. federal, state and local taxes on our income and assets, including taxes on any undistributed income, state or local income and property and transfer taxes, including real property transfer taxes. In addition, we could, in certain circumstances, be required to pay an excise or penalty tax (which could be significant in amount) in order to utilize one or more relief provisions under the Code to maintain our qualification as a REIT. Any of these taxes would decrease operating cash flow to our shareholders. In addition, in order to meet the REIT qualification requirements, or to avert the imposition of a 100% tax that applies to certain gains derived by a REIT from dealer property or inventory, we may hold some of our assets or provide certain services to our tenants through one or more TRSs, or other subsidiary corporations that will be subject to corporate-level income tax at regular corporate rates. Any TRSs or other taxable corporations in which we invest will be subject to U.S. federal, state and local corporate taxes. Furthermore, if we acquire appreciated assets from a corporation that is or has been a subchapter C corporation in a transaction in which the adjusted tax basis of such assets in our hands is less than the fair market value of the assets, determined at the time we acquired such assets, and if we subsequently dispose of any such assets during the 5-year period following the acquisition of the assets from the C corporation, we will be subject to tax at the highest corporate tax rates on any gain from the disposition of such assets to the extent of the excess of the fair market value of the assets on the date that we acquired such assets over the basis of such assets on such date, which we refer to as built-in gains. Payment of these taxes generally could materially and adversely affect our income, cash flow, results of operations, financial condition, liquidity and prospects, and could adversely affect the value of our common shares and our ability to make distributions to our shareholders.

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Failure to make required distributions would subject us to tax, which would reduce the operating cash flow to our shareholders.
In order to qualify as a REIT, we must distribute to our shareholders each calendar year at least 90% of our net taxable income (excluding net capital gain). To the extent that we satisfy the 90% distribution requirement, but distribute less than 100% of our net taxable income (including net capital gain), we would be subject to U.S. federal corporate income tax on our undistributed net taxable income. In addition, we will incur a 4% non-deductible excise tax on the amount, if any, by which our distributions in any calendar year are less than a minimum amount specified under U.S. federal income tax laws. Although we intend to distribute our net taxable income to our shareholders in a manner intended to satisfy the REIT 90% distribution requirement and to avoid the 4% non-deductible excise tax, it is possible that we, from time to time, may not have sufficient cash to distribute 100% of our net taxable income. There may be timing differences between our actual receipt of cash and the inclusion of items in our income for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Accordingly, there can be no assurance that we will be able to distribute net taxable income to shareholders in a manner that satisfies the REIT distribution requirements and avoids the 4% non-deductible excise tax.
To maintain our REIT qualification, we may be forced to borrow funds during unfavorable market conditions.
In order to maintain our REIT qualification and avoid the payment of income and excise taxes, we may need to borrow funds to meet the REIT distribution requirements even if the then prevailing market conditions are not favorable for these borrowings. These borrowing needs could result from, among other things, timing differences between the actual receipt of cash and inclusion of income for federal income tax purposes, or the effect of non-deductible capital expenditures, the creation of reserves or required debt or amortization payments. These sources, however, may not be available on favorable terms or at all. Our access to third-party sources of capital depends on a number of factors, including the market's perception of our growth potential, our current debt levels, the per share trading price of our common shares, and our current and potential future earnings. We cannot assure you that we will have access to such capital on favorable terms at the desired times, or at all, which may cause us to curtail our investment activities and/or to dispose of assets at inopportune times, and could adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and our ability to pay distributions on, and the per share trading price of, our common shares.
Complying with the REIT requirements may cause us to forgo and/or liquidate otherwise attractive investments.
To qualify as a REIT, we must ensure that at least 75% of our gross income for each taxable year, excluding certain amounts, is derived from certain real property-related sources, and at least 95% of our gross income for each taxable year, excluding certain amounts, is derived from certain real property-related sources and passive income such as dividends and interest. In addition, we must ensure that, at the end of each calendar quarter, at least 75% of the value of our total assets consists of cash, cash items, U.S. government securities and qualified real estate assets. The remainder of our investment in securities generally cannot include more than 10% of the outstanding voting securities of any one issuer (other than U.S. government securities, securities of corporations that are treated as TRSs and qualified real estate assets) or more than 10% of the total value of the outstanding securities of any one issuer (other than government securities, securities of corporations that are treated as TRSs and qualified real estate assets). In addition, in general, no more than 5% of the value of our assets can consist of the securities of any one issuer (other than U.S. government securities, securities of corporations that are treated as TRSs and qualified real estate assets), no more than 20% of the value of our total assets can be represented by securities of one or more TRSs and no more than 25% of the value of our assets can consist of debt instruments issued by publicly offered REITs that are not otherwise secured by real property. If we fail to comply with these asset requirements at the end of any calendar quarter, we must correct the failure within 30 days after the end of the calendar quarter or qualify for certain statutory relief provisions to avoid losing our REIT qualification and suffering adverse tax consequences.
To meet these tests, we may be required to take or forgo taking actions that we would otherwise consider advantageous. For instance, in order to satisfy the gross income or asset tests applicable to REITs under the Code, we may be required to forgo investments that we otherwise would make. Furthermore, we may be required to liquidate from our portfolio otherwise attractive investments. In addition, we may be required to make distributions to shareholders at disadvantageous times or when we do not have funds readily available for distribution. These actions could reduce our income and amounts available for distribution to our shareholders. Thus, compliance with the REIT requirements may hinder our investment performance.

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We may be subject to a 100% tax on income from "prohibited transactions," and this tax may limit our ability to sell assets or require us to restructure certain of our activities in order to avoid being subject to the tax.
We will be subject to a 100% tax on any income from a prohibited transaction. "Prohibited transactions" generally include sales or other dispositions of property (other than property treated as foreclosure property under the Code) that is held as inventory or primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business by a REIT, either directly or indirectly through certain pass-through subsidiaries. The characterization of an asset sale as a prohibited transaction depends on the particular facts and circumstances.
The 100% tax will not apply to gains from the sale of inventory that is held through a TRS or other taxable corporation, although such income will be subject to tax in the hands of the corporation at regular corporate income tax rates.
Our TRSs will be subject to U.S. federal income tax and will be required to pay a 100% penalty tax on certain income or deductions if our transactions with our TRSs are not conducted on arm's length terms.
We may conduct certain activities (such as facilitating sales by our PROs of tenant insurance, of which we receive a portion of the proceeds, selling packing supplies and locks and renting trucks or other moving equipment) through one or more TRSs.
A TRS is a corporation other than a REIT in which a REIT directly or indirectly holds stock, and that has made a joint election with such REIT to be treated as a TRS. If a TRS owns more than 35% of the total voting power or value of the outstanding securities of another corporation, such other corporation will also be treated as a TRS. Other than some activities relating to lodging and health care properties, a TRS may generally engage in any business, including the provision of customary or non-customary services to tenants of its parent REIT. A TRS is subject to U.S. federal income tax as a regular C corporation.
No more than 20% of the value of a REIT's total assets may consist of stock or securities of one or more TRSs. This requirement limits the extent to which we can conduct our activities through TRSs. The values of some of our assets, including assets that we hold through TRSs, may not be subject to precise determination, and values are subject to change in the future. Furthermore, if a REIT lends money to a TRS, the TRS may be unable to deduct all or a portion of the interest paid to the REIT, which could increase the tax liability of the TRS. In addition, the Code imposes a 100% tax on certain transactions between a TRS and its parent REIT that are not conducted on an arm's length basis. We intend to structure transactions with any TRS on terms that we believe are arm's length to avoid incurring the 100% excise tax described above. There can be no assurances, however, that we will be able to avoid application of the 100% tax.
If our operating partnership is treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we will cease to qualify as a REIT.
We believe our operating partnership qualifies as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes. As a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, our operating partnership will not be subject to U.S. federal income tax on its income. Instead, each of its partners, including us, will be required to pay tax on its allocable share of our operating partnership's income. No assurance can be provided, however, that the IRS will not challenge our operating partnership's status as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes, or that a court would not sustain such a challenge. If the IRS were successful in treating our operating partnership as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we would fail to meet the gross income tests and certain of the asset tests applicable to REITs. As a result, we would cease to qualify as a REIT and both we and our operating partnership would become subject to U.S. federal, state and local income tax. The payment by our operating partnership of income tax would reduce significantly the amount of cash available to our operating partnership to satisfy obligations to make principal and interest payments on its debt and to make distribution to its partners, including us.
Complying with REIT requirements may limit our ability to hedge effectively and may cause us to incur tax liabilities.
The REIT provisions of the Code may limit our ability to hedge our assets and operations. Under these provisions, any income that we generate from transactions intended to hedge our interest rate risk will be excluded from gross income for purposes of the REIT 75% and 95% gross income tests if (i) the instrument (a) hedges interest rate risk on liabilities used to carry or acquire real estate assets or (b) hedges an instrument described in clause (a) for a period following the extinguishment of the liability or the disposition of the asset that was previously hedged by the hedged instrument, and (ii) the relevant instrument is properly identified under applicable Treasury

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regulations. Income from hedging transactions that does not meet these requirements will generally constitute non-qualifying income for purposes of both the REIT 75% and 95% gross income tests. As a result of these rules, we may have to limit our use of hedging techniques that might otherwise be advantageous or implement those hedges through a TRS. This could increase the cost of our hedging activities because our TRS would be subject to tax on gains or expose us to greater risks associated with changes in interest rates than we would otherwise want to bear. In addition, losses in our TRS will generally not provide any tax benefit to us, although, subject to limitation, such losses may be carried forward to offset future taxable income of the TRS.
The ability of our board of trustees to revoke our REIT election without shareholder approval may cause adverse consequences to our shareholders.
Our declaration of trust provides that the board of trustees may revoke or otherwise terminate our REIT election, without the approval of our shareholders, if the board determines that it is no longer in our best interest to attempt to, or continue to, qualify as a REIT. If we cease to qualify as a REIT, we would become subject to U.S. federal income tax on our net taxable income and we generally would no longer be required to distribute any of our net taxable income to our shareholders, which may have adverse consequences on our total return to our shareholders.
Legislative or regulatory tax changes related to REITs could materially and adversely affect our business.
At any time, the U.S. federal income tax laws or regulations governing REITs or the administrative interpretations of those laws or regulations may be changed, possibly with retroactive effect. We cannot predict if or when any new U.S. federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation, or any amendment to any existing U.S. federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation, will be adopted, promulgated or become effective or whether any such law, regulation or interpretation may take effect retroactively. We and our shareholders could be adversely affected by any such change in, or any new, U.S. federal income tax law, regulation or administrative interpretation.
The TCJA, which was signed into law on December 22, 2017, significantly changes U.S. federal income tax laws applicable to businesses and their owners, including REITs and their shareholders, and may lessen the relative competitive advantage of operating as a REIT rather than as a C corporation. For additional discussion, see "U.S. Federal Income Tax Legislation".
Risks Related to Our Common Shares and Preferred Shares
Common shares and preferred shares eligible for future sale may have adverse effects on our share price.
Subject to applicable law and the rules of any stock exchange on which our shares may be listed or traded, our board of trustees, without common shareholder approval, may authorize us to issue additional authorized and unissued common shares and preferred shares on the terms and for the consideration it deems appropriate and may amend our declaration of trust to increase the total number of shares, or the number of shares of any class or series, that we are authorized to issue. In addition, our operating partnership may issue OP units, which are redeemable for cash or, at our option exchangeable on a one-for-one basis into common shares after an agreed period of time and certain other conditions, preferred units of limited partnership interest, which are redeemable for cash or, at our option exchangeable on a one-for-one basis into our 6.000% Series A cumulative redeemable preferred shares of beneficial interest ("Series A Preferred Shares") and subordinated performance units, which are only convertible into OP units beginning two years following the initial issuance of the applicable series and then (i) at the holder's election only upon the achievement of certain performance thresholds relating to the properties to which such subordinated performance units relate or (ii) at our election upon a retirement event of a PRO that holds such subordinated performance units or upon certain qualifying terminations. Notwithstanding the two-year lock out period on conversions of subordinated performance units into OP units, if all such subordinated performance units were convertible into OP units as of December 31, 2019, each subordinated performance unit would on average hypothetically convert into 1.48 OP units, or into an aggregate of approximately 22.8 million OP units. These amounts are based on historical financial information for the trailing twelve months ended December 31, 2019. The hypothetical conversion is calculated by dividing the average cash available for distribution, or CAD, per subordinated performance unit by 110% of the CAD per OP unit over the same period. We anticipate that as our CAD grows over time, the conversion ratio will also grow, including to levels that may exceed this amount. The actual number of OP units into which such subordinated performance units will become convertible may vary significantly and will depend upon the applicable conversion penalty and the actual CAD to the OP units and the actual CAD to the converted subordinated performance units in the one-year period ending prior to conversion. We

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have also granted registration rights to those persons who will be eligible to receive common shares issuable upon exchange of OP units issued in our formation transactions and certain contribution transactions.
Pursuant to the registration rights agreements, we have filed a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 to register the offer and resale of the common shares issuable upon exchange of OP units (or securities convertible into or exchangeable for OP units and we expect to file a shelf registration statement on Form S-3 to register the offer and resale of the Series A Preferred Shares issuable upon the exchange of our 6.000% Series A-1 cumulative redeemable preferred units of limiting partnership interest ("Series A-1 preferred units") in the Company's operating partnership). We have the right to include common shares to be sold for our own account or other holders in the shelf registration statement. We are required to use all commercially reasonable efforts to keep such shelf registration statement continuously effective for a period ending when all common shares covered by the shelf registration statement are no longer Registrable Shares, as defined in the shelf registration statement.
We intend to bear the expenses incident to these registration requirements except that we will not bear the costs of (i) any underwriting fees, discounts or commissions, (ii) out-of-pocket expenses of the persons exercising the registration rights or (iii) transfer taxes.
We cannot predict the effect, if any, of future sales of our common or preferred shares or the availability of shares for future sales, on the market price of our common or preferred shares. The market price of our common shares may decline significantly when the restrictions on resale by certain of our shareholders lapse. Sales of substantial amounts of common or preferred shares or the perception that such sales could occur may adversely affect the prevailing market price for our common shares.
We cannot assure our ability to pay dividends in the future.
Historically, we have paid quarterly common share dividends to our shareholders and quarterly distributions to our operating partnership unitholders, and we intend to continue to pay quarterly dividends to our shareholders and to make quarterly distributions to our operating partnership unitholders in amounts such that all or substantially all of our net taxable income in each year is distributed, which, along with other factors, should enable us to continue to qualify for the tax benefits accorded to a REIT under the Code. We have not established a minimum dividends payment level, and all future distributions will be made at the discretion of our board of trustees. Our ability to pay dividends will depend upon, among other factors:
the operational and financial performance of our properties; 
capital expenditures with respect to existing and newly acquired properties; 
general and administrative expenses associated with our operation as a publicly-held REIT;
maintenance of our REIT qualification;
the amount of, and the interest rates on, our debt and the ability to refinance our debt;
the absence of significant expenditures relating to environmental and other regulatory matters; and 
other risk factors described in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Certain of these matters are beyond our control and any significant difference between our expectations and actual results could have a material adverse effect on our cash flow and our ability to make distributions to shareholders.
Future offerings of debt or equity securities, which may rank senior to our common shares, may adversely affect the market price of our common shares.
If we decide to issue debt securities in the future, which would rank senior to our common shares, it is likely that they will be governed by an indenture or other instrument containing covenants restricting our operating flexibility. Additionally, any equity securities or convertible or exchangeable securities that we issue in the future may have rights, preferences and privileges more favorable than those of our common shares and may result in dilution to owners of our common shares. We and, indirectly, our shareholders will bear the cost of issuing and servicing such securities. Because our decision to issue debt or equity securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Thus, holders of our common shares will bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the market price of our common shares and diluting the value of their share holdings in us.

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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2. Properties
As of December 31, 2019, we held ownership interests in and operated a geographically diversified portfolio of 742 self storage properties, located in 35 states and Puerto Rico, comprising approximately 47.1 million rentable square feet, configured in approximately 378,000 storage units. Of these properties, we consolidated 567 self storage properties that contain approximately 34.5 million rentable square feet and we held a 25% ownership interest in 175 unconsolidated real estate venture properties that contain approximately 12.6 million rentable square feet.
The following table sets forth summary information regarding our consolidated properties by state as of December 31, 2019.
Number of Number ofRentable% of Rentable Period-end
State/TerritoryPropertiesUnitsSquare FeetSquare FeetOccupancy
California(1)
83  49,618  6,226,952  18.1 %88.4 %
Texas71  29,465  4,218,584  12.2 %86.6 %
Oregon61  24,498  3,105,199  8.9 %81.1 %
Florida46  28,956  3,021,295  8.8 %86.4 %
Georgia44  19,044  2,547,949  7.4 %87.7 %
North Carolina33  15,377  1,885,479  5.5 %90.8 %
Arizona31  16,893  1,925,442  5.6 %86.9 %
Oklahoma30  13,848  1,902,842  5.5 %87.5 %
Louisiana(1)
26  12,336  1,538,959  4.5 %84.8 %
Indiana16  8,777  1,134,820  3.3 %89.6 %
Kansas16  5,713  763,249  2.2 %86.6 %
Washington14  4,496  578,723  1.7 %80.1